俄国形式主义学派之VictorShklovsly论道: “art existsthat one may recover the sensation of life; it exists to make onefeel things, to make the stone stony. The purpose of art is toimpart the sensation of things as they are perceived and not asthey are known. The technique of art is to make objects‘unfamiliar’, to make forms difficult, to increase the difficultyand length of perception because the process of perception is anaesthetic end in itself and must be prolonged. Art is a way ofexperiencing the artfulness of an object; the object is notimportant”
托尔斯泰也惋惜日常的机械对灵性和感悟力的磨损：“if the whole complex lives of many people go onunconsciously, then such live are as if they have neverbeen”.