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黄小邪:芝加哥,城南影事

 
 
 

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作家需要更多社会良知——Kubin  

2010-10-10 02:04:00|  分类: 书话 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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作家需要更多社会良知

顾彬(中国日报英文版)


我在德语国家听到或读到关于当代中国作家的见解一般都是轻蔑之辞。尽管诗人如翟永明、欧阳江河、王小妮、王家新和西川可能是例外。


我读过的对中国作家最尖锐的批评是高/行/健在《法兰克福汇报》(Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung)上的文章,分别刊于2000年和去年。但是,我不得不说,我宁死也不去写《灵/山》和因此获诺贝尔文学奖,此书是作为作者的耻辱。


是什么令多数当代中国作家在德国知识分子、作家和学者眼中面目可疑?乃为他们看来并未履行一位真正的作者的职责。


在德国人看来,一位作家必须是这种语言的仆人,并为其牺牲一切。他/她必须忘记市场和成功,只为他/她的作品而活。事实上,他/她的成就可能在死后才能被认可。一位真正的作家要接受这些。


很多当代中国作家用一种低智汉语baby Chinese)写作,外国人竟然无须字典也能读懂。他们觊觎市场,藏身高墙后面,被随从保护。作为中产阶级的一员,他们不再存活于百姓之间,不能,也不愿意,去探讨社会问题。


今日很多中国作家缺乏的是一种团结的精神——这其实是一种社会主义美德。在今日中国作家中早已丢失。不但不去帮助不幸中的同行,他们更愿去指责他们,或更糟,去自吹自擂。曹丕所言用在今日最恰切不过:文人相轻。


今天的中国作家也缺乏一种对外国文学在中国命运的责任感。任何自歌德至今的重要德语作家都是一位译者和(或)外国文学的传播者。比如,是小说家汉斯克里斯多福布赫(Hans Christoph Buch)于1973年将鲁迅的作品介绍给德国更多读者,故,这位中国现代文学之父可以对当代德语文学有更大影响。由于很多中国作家不精通任何外国语言,他们,在大多数情况下,不翻译,也不介绍外国文学到中国。


的确,翻译不仅是苦差事,且会花费大量时间。作为一个诗人、随笔作者和长、短篇小说作者,我仍感到翻译新、老中国文学作品的迫切性。因此我每天只花45分钟在我自己的创作上,而将大部分时间献给翻译、教授和研究中国文学和哲学。我认为这是我的责任。


在这方面,已故诗人张枣——我出了他的书(1999),成为一个告诫。这位多才多艺的年轻人精通多种语言,包括德语,有精湛的中文功底,可惜他几乎未对在中国传播德国文学做任何事。他宁愿,如很多他的同行,享受生活。我希望大家都能引以为鉴。


出于不同原因,当代中国文学问题很严重。很多商业成功的中国作者,从德国视角来看,已过时了。他们的书可能在德国很畅销,但他们的读者不再包括德国知识分子、作家或学者,而是那些对他们书中对于性爱和犯罪的描写更感兴趣的、而非关注文学本身的读者。


由于多数中国作家不懂外语,他们不能阅读外国文学原文。这是为何他们不能理解他们自己相对于世界文学中其他国家作家的位置。他们也许有些国际市场,但在世界文学的漫长历史中将会消失得无影无踪。


这是为何我认为王蒙和陈晓明在去年的法兰克福书展上所言这是中国文学的最好时代实为谬误。


作者为德国波恩大学教授,汉学家。


(翻译:黄小邪。译者注:仓促之间译成,有不妥之处请各位读者批评指正。)


附原文:

 Writers need more social conscience 
 By Wolfgang Kubin (China Daily)
 
 What I often hear or read in German-speaking countries about contemporary Chinese writers amounts to contempt. Though poets like Zhai Yongming, Ouyang Jianghe, Wang Xiaoni, Wang Jiaxin and Xi Chuan, may be the exceptions. 
   
 I have never read deeper condemnation of a Chinese writer than that of Gao Xingjian in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, first in 2000 and then last year. But, I have to confess, I'd prefer dying to writing Soul Mountain and winning the Nobel Prize for Literature for it, as the novel is a real shame. 
   
 What makes contemporary Chinese writers in general, suspicious in the eyes of German intellectuals, writers and scholars is that they do not seem to fulfill the duties of a true author. 
   
 From a German perspective, a writer has to be the servant of the language and sacrifice everything in its service. He/she has to forget about the market and success, and live only for his/her work. In fact, his/her achievements may be recognized only after his/her death. A true writer has to accept this. 
   
 Many Chinese writers today write a kind of "baby Chinese", which does not demand even a foreigner to use a dictionary. They squint at the market and entrench themselves behind walls, protected by guards. As part of the middle class, they do not live among the common people any more, and cannot, or prefer not to, speak about social problems. 
   
 What many Chinese writers lack today is the feeling of solidarity, which is actually is a socialist virtue. It has been lost among today's Chinese writers. Instead of helping their colleagues in distress, they prefer to blame them, or worse, praise themselves. Never was Cao Pi's saying more true than today: Those who are in literature despise each other. 
   
 Today's Chinese writers also lack a sense of responsibility for the fate of foreign literature in China. Any important German author since Goethe until now has been a translator and/or a go-between for foreign literature. For instance, it was the novelist Hans Christoph Buch who introduced Lu Xun in 1973 to a broader audience in Germany, so that the father of modern Chinese literature could slowly develop his great impact upon contemporary German literature. Since many Chinese writers do not know any foreign language well, they, in most cases, do not translate, nor do they introduce foreign literature to China. 
   
 True, translation is not only hard work, but also a time-consuming exercise. As a poet, essayist, novelist and short story writer, I nevertheless feel the urge to translate Chinese works, old or new. That is why I spend about 45 minutes a day on my own literary works, and dedicate the rest of the day to translating, teaching and researching Chinese literature and philosophy. I think it my duty. 
   
 In this respect, the late poet Zhang Zao, whom I published in book form (1999), is a warning for me. This multi-talented young man with a rich knowledge of foreign languages, including German, and superb Chinese, did almost nothing to promote German literature in China. He preferred, like many of his colleagues, to "enjoy life". I hope he becomes a deterrent to all. 
   
 For many reasons, contemporary Chinese literature is a real problem. Many best-selling Chinese authors are, from a German perspective, outdated. Their books may sell well even in Germany, but their readers do not include German intellectuals, writers or scholars, but people who are not interested in literature per se but in their descriptions of sex and crime. 
   
 As Chinese writers in most cases don't have command of a foreign language, they cannot read foreign writers in the original. That is why they cannot understand their own position vis--vis writers in other languages in world literature, which in the international market may be quite good, but which in the long history of world literature will vanish without trace. 
   
 That is why I think Wang Meng and Chen Xiaoming, during and after last year's Frankfurt Book Fair, were not right in saying that there was never a better time for Chinese literature than now. 
   
 The author is a Sinologist and professor at the University of Bonn. 
   
 http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2010-10/09/content_11387732.htm 
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